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History of Thermal at Goddard
Presenter Ed Powers
Published July 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 01:03:46
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JWST OTIS Cryogenic Vacuum Test, Part 2: Thermal Analysis
Presenter Kan Yang
Published July 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 01:19:25
Tags None
In Part II, we will provide an overview of the OTIS CV test thermal model development. A description of some of the driving limits and constraints will be provided, as well as how these influenced our test planning and eventual execution. One significant aspect of our pre-test planning is the method by which we optimized the OTIS CV test cooldown and warmup profiles using the thermal model by incorporating a feedback loop for driving helium shroud temperature. We will spend some time introducing the logic for this feedback loop, which traded test time versus model safety to determine the most efficient way to cool and warm the payload. Finally, we will take a look at how our pre-test predictions compared with our actual performance in the OTIS CV test.
Aerogel-Based Thermal Insulation Systems for Cryogenic-vacuum Applications
Presenter James Fesmire
Published June 2020
Recorded June 2018
Duration 01:03:34
Tags None
Many different aerogel-based materials are now being used in thermal insulation systems for cryogenic applications. These materials include flexible composite blankets, bulk-fill particles, and polymer composites in both evacuated and non-evacuated environments. In ambient environments, aerogels provide superior thermal performance compared to conventional polymeric foam and cellular glass insulations while offering unique advantages in avoiding problems with weathering, moisture, and mechanical damage. Aerogels are also used in layered insulation systems providing combined structural-thermal capability for cryogenic applications in either vacuum-jacketed or externally-applied insulation designs. Test data (effective thermal conductivity) include a wide range of both commercial and experimental aerogel materials. Testing was performed using laboratory cryostats and standard methods including full range vacuum (from ambient pressure to high vacuum) and boundary temperatures 293 K and 78 K. Examples of aerogel-based insulation systems are given for both evacuated and non-evacuated applications. Technical resources for further data and study are also provided. Briefly addressed are the following topics on aerogel insulation systems: • Production & processing methods • Types of aerogels/composites • Properties & phenomena • Thermal testing • Thermal data • Applications & problem-solving
The Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment, Part 1
Presenter Dr. Mohammad Kassemi
Published June 2020
Recorded July 2018
Duration 01:20:44
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The Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments are a series of small scale tank pressurization and pressure control experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that use a transparent volatile simulant fluid in a transparent sealed tank to delineate various fundamental fluid flow, heat and mass transport, and phase change phenomena that control storage tank pressurization and pressure control in microgravity. The hardware for ZBOT-1 flew to ISS on the OA-7 flight in April 2017. Operations began in September 2017 and were completed by December 2017, encompassing more than 100 tests. Hand-in-Hand with the experiment a state-of-the-art two-phase CFD model of the storage tank pressurization & pressure control is also developed and validated against the experimental results.
Human Factors Applications of Biomechanical Modeling
Presenter Dr. Beth Lewandowski
Published June 2020
Recorded June 2019
Duration 38:55
Tags None
Recorded June 18, 2019 Biomechanical data collection and modeling has applications to the field of human factors. Specifically, motion data can be used to determine the operational volume necessary for performing a task. The operational volume assessment can be performed in order to determine how much volume is needed to perform the task or if task performance can be contained and adequately performed within an allocated volume. Motion and external force data, along with computational modeling techniques, can be used to estimate the internal loading produced during performance of a task. Internal loading estimates can be used to determine if an adequate stimulus is generated for maintenance of musculoskeletal health and also for comparison to injury thresholds to determine injury risk during task performance.
Futuristic Habitat Concepts to Expand Human Capability in Space
Presenter Dr. Robert Howard
Published June 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 59:34
Tags None
Since the dawn of human space flight there have been visions for human space flight programs that send humans to destinations beyond Earth. NASA is currently committed to the lunar surface, Mars surface, and deep space transport. Unfortunately, instabilities in US space policy have caused NASA to change focus repeatedly between these architectures since the 1970s. Further, it can be shown that developing lunar, Martian, and transit habitats in series will require inordinately long periods of time, resulting in exorbitant program expenses. A mitigation to these challenges could be to develop a Common Habitat design for both transit and surface operations. A Common Habitat derived from the Space Launch System core stage’s liquid oxygen tank and manufactured on the same production line as the SLS can be designed to provide functionality required for both microgravity transit and surface operations. Part one of this webcast will describe design considerations and options in addressing open challenges and unknowns as they pertain to horizontal or vertical interior orientation, integration with lunar or Martian landers, docking and resupply logistics, and variations in crew size. Part two of this webcast introduces the idea of a transit spacecraft whose primary crew mission is found within the transit as opposed to the destination. This webcast introduces the concept of a Deep Space Science Vessel (DSSV), a large, multi-purpose, multi-disciplinary science spacecraft intended for human spaceflight operations in the inner solar system. This webcast will define the DSSV onboard crew functions and describe target performance levels for each function. It will then discuss the habitable volume of the spacecraft, providing high level workstation descriptions and preliminary layout options for portions of the spacecraft. Attached and typical visiting vehicles will be described, including their functions, heritage, and examples of mission-specific configurations. Mission concepts will be described for key missions possible within the vehicle’s operating range. Sample crew composition for the DSSV will be discussed. Finally, future work will be described, providing context for human development of the inner solar system.
STS/ISS On-Orbit Flight Control: A Historical Perspective or Some Funny Things Happened While Assembling the Space Station
Presenter Robert Hall
Published June 2020
Recorded February 2020
Duration 01:03:09
Tags None
This aired on February 26th, 2020 The assembly of the International Space Station was a very complex flight control and integration challenge. This presentation discusses some of those challenges, along with some things that happened along the way that weren't expected.
Practical Application of Human Factors in Flight Hardware Design
Presenter Sean Schimelpfening
Published March 2020
Recorded January 2020
Duration 51:19
Tags None
Abstract: The following presentation and corresponding hardware demonstration were developed as training for U.S. ISS Payload Developers (PDs), to instruct them how to design hardware to meet ISS Payload Human Factors requirements and guidelines, and to brief them about the services the ISS Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) offers to them. Applying Human Factors requirements and guidelines to flight hardware design is not as simple as one would think. This presentation and hands-on demonstration have proven valuable to get hardware developers to think about designing crew interfaces that are safe and easy to operate.
Demonstrating a Galactic Positioning System Using X-ray Emitting Millisecond Pulsars
Presenter Jason Mitchell
Published March 2020
Recorded October 2019
Duration 01:01:05
Tags None
Abstract: Accurate reference clocks are critical to navigation. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), principally the Global Positioning System (GPS), provide the precise space-based clocks that have revolutionized navigation and timekeeping terrestrially and within the Interoperable Space Service Volume (SSV), i.e., near Earth including above the GNSS constellations. Unfortunately, for spacecraft navigation beyond Earth into deep space, GNSS is not available. While GNSS constellations are unavailable to spacecraft in deep space, observing X-ray emissions from rapidly spinning neutron stars, called millisecond pulsars (MSPs), has been shown to fill that gap; a process often referred to as X-ray Navigation (XNAV). MSPs are distributed throughout our galaxy and many pulsate at intervals so regular that they rival terrestrial atomic clocks on long time scales, similar to those clocks contained in GNSS satellites. By carefully timing these pulsations, an XNAV equipped spacecraft can use these celestial lighthouses to autonomously determine its absolute position, with uniform accuracy, anywhere within our Solar System and even beyond. This is in contrast to conventional position determination using Earth-based tracking, in which a communication link back to Earth is required and accuracy degrades as the distance from Earth grows. In this webcast, results will be presented of the Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology (SEXTANT) demonstration, which successfully executed the first on-orbit use of XNAV to perform autonomous onboard and real-time space navigation. SEXTANT was a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded technology enhancement to the Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission, which is currently operating on the International Space Station (ISS).
Oculometric Assessment of Mild Neural Impairment
Presenter Dr. Leland Stone
Published March 2020
Recorded January 2020
Duration 48:56
Tags None
Abstract: For over 100 years, neurologists have used eye movements to identify neural impairment, disease, or injury. Prior to the age of modern imaging, qualitative assessment of eye movements was a critical, routine component of diagnosis and remains today a routine law-enforcement tool for detecting impaired driving due to drugs or alcohol. We will describe the application of a simple 5-minute oculomotor tracking task coupled with a broad range of quantitative analyses of high-resolution oculomotor measurements for the sensitive detection of sub-clinical neural impairment and for the potential differentiation of various causes. Specifically, we will show that there are distinct patterns of impairment across our set of oculometric parameters observed with brain trauma, sleep and circadian disruption, and alcohol consumption. Such differences could form the basis of a self-administered medical monitoring or diagnostic support tool.
Actively Tunable Filter Components (ATFCs) Using Phase Change Materials (PCM) for Scientific Instrumentation
Presenter Dr. Hyun Jung Kim
Published January 2020
Recorded December 2019
Duration 53:16
Tags None
Abstract: The presentation addresses the challenge in improving the key scientific component metrics of Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) associated with active tuning filter components (ATFCs). The team at NASA LaRC, working with collaborators, developed an ATFC, an all-solid-state tunable filter, based on a Phase Change Material (PCM) which can operate across the visible and infrared spectrum. Optical filters are critical components in a plethora of NASA Earth and Space science missions. The challenge: The optical filter wheel, when combined with multiple Fabry-Perot filters are used for many NASA missions including SAGE-IV and SCIFLI (Scientifically Calibrated In-Flight Imagery). Conventional Fabry-Perot filters offer discrete, static passbands, thus requiring laser filter wheels to accommodate many individual filters. The filter wheel has moving parts, has slow response times and/or provides limited spectral resolution. Our solution: The ATFC is a single-component tunable filter which has the advantage of a robust and continuous tuning bandwidth, allowing for a single component to replace the multiple filters required by the filter wheel. Our major advances include: • A new design concept marrying two distinct physical phenomena: PCM and extraordinary optical transmission are independently well-known. However, by combining their specific benefits in a single novel design, unexplored capabilities have been demonstrated. • Continuously tunable, reversible, operation across the spectral band of interest: The utilization of optically switched, partially crystalline phases of PCM allows for a near continuum of states over the MWIR waveband. • Spectrally agnostic, robust design: A straightforward design modification permits operation from the visible to the MWIR spectral bands, with no major design modifications required; the design is spectrally agnostic. • High transmission efficiency and narrowband performance: Our devices have unrivalled optical performance characteristics. • Real-time thermal imaging using our filters: Using a conventional IR-camera, real-world applicability is shown through tunable multispectral thermal imaging. Future direction: The reduction in volume and weight of the ATFC will enable an instrument to fit within a SmallSat configuration, freeing up available space for other components and reducing the overall cost of the payload. Therefore, the ATFC would become a central component for future Earth science measurement instrumentation. Additionally, the ATFC is applicable to wider multi-and hyper-spectral imaging; from applications in chemical sensing, astronomy, radiometry, and biomedical diagnosis. In the presentation, customizable wavelength filters and their applications will be discussed as well as the future direction of the technology. The team: Mr. Scott Bartram, Mr. Stephen Borg, Dr. Matthew Julian, and Dr. Calum Williams comprise the team. The team acknowledges support from the NASA LaRC FY19 and FY20 CIF/IRAD Program.
Navigation Doppler Lidar: A Velocity and Altitude Sensor for Landing Vehicles
Presenter Dr. Farzin Amzajerdian
Published December 2019
Recorded June 2019
Duration 52:17
Tags None
Instructions: - Add this to your calendar using the "Add to Calendar" link for a convenient 15-minute reminder. - Slides will be available to download in the "Links." - Please submit questions as they arise rather than waiting until the end. - Enjoy! A coherent Doppler lidar has been developed to address NASA’s need for a high-performance, compact, and cost-effective velocity and altitude sensor for use onboard its landing vehicles. Future robotic and manned missions to solar system bodies require precise ground-relative velocity vectors and altitude data to execute complex descent maneuvers and safe soft landing at the pre-designated site. This lidar sensor, referred to as Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL), can meet the required performance of landing missions while complying with most vehicle size, mass, and power constraints. Operating from several kilometers altitude, the NDL can provide velocity and range precision with about 2 cm/sec and 2 meters, respectively, dominated by the vehicle motion. The NDL transmits three laser beams at different pointing angles toward the ground and measures range and velocity along each beam using a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) technique. The three line-of-sight measurements are then combined in order to determine the three components of the vehicle velocity vector and its altitude relative to the ground. After a series of flight tests onboard helicopters and rocket-powered free-flyer vehicles, the NDL is now being ruggedized for future missions to various destinations in the solar system.
Exploring Human Performance Contributions to Safety in Commercial Aviation
Presenter Dr. Jon Holbrook
Published November 2019
Recorded February 2019
Duration 36:37
Tags None
Instructions: - Add this to your calendar using the "Add to Calendar" link for a convenient 15-minute reminder. - Slides are available to download in the "Links." - Please submit questions as they arise rather than waiting until the end. - Enjoy! Abstract: Data-driven decisions about safety management and design of safety-critical systems are limited by the available data, which influence, and are influenced by, how decision makers characterize problems and identify solutions. In the commercial aviation domain, data are systematically collected and analyzed on the failures and errors that result in infrequent incidents and accidents, but in the absence of data on behaviors that result in routine successful outcomes, safety management and system design decisions are based on a small sample of non-representative safety data. As a case in point, analysis of aviation accident data suggests that human error is implicated in up to 80% of accidents, which has been used to justify future visions for aviation in which the roles of human operators are greatly diminished or eliminated in the interest of creating a safer aviation system. However, failure to fully consider the human contributions to successful system performance in civil aviation represents a significant and largely unrecognized risk. Without understanding how humans contribute to safety, any estimate of predicted safety of autonomous machine capabilities is incomplete and inherently suspect.
JWST OTIS Cryogenic Vacuum Test, Part 1: Thermal Architecture
Presenter Kan Yang
Published October 2019
Recorded September 2019
Duration 30:59
Tags None
This series discusses the cryogenic vacuum testing of the James Webb Space Telescope’s Optical Telescope Element and Integrated Science Instrument Module, or OTIS. This test required multiple years of planning and was executed from July-October of 2017 at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. There are four parts to this series: Part I will introduce the major components of James Webb and specifically the thermal architecture of the OTIS cryogenic vacuum or CV test. Part II will encompass the extensive thermal analysis performed to prepare for the test. Part III will talk about the preparations for off-nominal events: what analysis was done, and how steps were taken pre-test to anticipate unexpected circumstances and mitigate their impacts to hardware and test timeline. Part IV is a recap of the lessons learned from the thermal test conductor perspective for both the payload team and the ground support equipment or GSE team.
Virtual Reality for Worksite Analysis Methods
Presenter Tanya Andrews
Published October 2019
Recorded August 2019
Duration 32:03
Tags None
Open to the Public Recorded September 10, 2019 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Team is implementing Virtual Reality (VR) into HFE analyses of various projects. MSFC HFE is responsible for the worksite analyses of the integration efforts of the Space Launch System (SLS) that will be performed at Kennedy Space center (KSC), as well as the HFE analyses of Deep Space Habitat (DSH) Concepts. There is a wide variety of tasks, and it is important to verify that the vehicle can be integrated at KSC early in the design process. If the ground support crew cannot complete the task, access the parts of the elements that require integration, or if other hardware may be damaged during such access, redesign efforts have to be implemented. MSFC HFE is responsible for this verification and has used methods such as drawing inspection, observation of tasks performed on test articles, and building physical mockups that are sometimes used with Motion Capture (MoCap). In addition, VR analyses are now being utilized for a faster analysis early in the process that can impact design before drawings are finalized and funds are allocated for physical mockups. This technology does not replace the need for physical mockups in most cases, but rather improves the design maturity of the physical mockup. All of these methods are used in tandem to perform HFE assessments at NASA MSFC.
Fast-Light Inertial Sensors
Presenter Dr. David D. Smith
Published October 2019
Recorded June 2019
Duration 54:32
Tags None
Abstract: Fundamental improvements in the precision of inertial sensors are critical for onboard autonomous navigation technologies that can meet the complexities of next generation space missions. A solution to this challenge might involve one of the hottest topics in optical physics to emerge in the last decade: the use of exceptional points or fast light to dramatically increase the sensitivity of optical cavities to changes in optical path length. These effects were directly observed for the first time in experiments at MSFC, which obtained enhancements in sensitivity as large as 360 and led to the first demonstration of the enhancement in a closed-loop device. The boost in sensitivity could enable more rapid and precise inertial measurements, with smaller gyros, translating to greater spacecraft autonomy. I will discuss the challenges and prospects for the improvement of gyroscopes and accelerometers based on these concepts.
(MOWG) NASA Robotic CARA Satellite State Estimate Covariance
Presenter Megan Johnson
Published July 2019
Recorded February 2019
Duration 41:40
Tags None
(MOWG) NASA Robotic CARA Probability of Collision
Presenter Megan Johnson
Published July 2019
Recorded February 2019
Duration 42:46
Tags None
Numerical Method to Calculate Spacecraft Environmental Heating From Celestial Bodies
Presenter Allan Holtzman
Published July 2019
Recorded June 2019
Duration 10:15
Tags None
This talk is about a numerical method to calculate the environmental heating of a spacecraft near a celestial body. This method was applied on MESSENGER, the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury, and helped to protect the spacecraft throughout its life and increase the amount of science data returned for the mission. The technique would be useful also for lunar missions, and for spacecraft that come in close proximity to comets and asteroids, and other scenarios besides those.
Microwave Technology Development for Future Earth Science and Applications from Space
Presenter Dr. David Kunkee
Published June 2019
Recorded November 2018
Duration 01:02:46
Tags None
**Slides available via the "Download Slides" button under "Links." The National Academies released the pre-publication of its consensus study report entitled Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space in 2017 (ESAS 2017). This is the second such decadal survey with the primary objective which “recommendations for the environmental monitoring and Earth science and applications communities for an integrated and sustainable approach to the conduct of the U.S. government’s civilian space-based Earth-system science programs.” In the previous year, NASA’s Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) commissioned a study to support formulation of recommendations for microwave-based measurements from space that were in formulation within ESAS 2017. The report entitled “2016 NASA ESTO Microwave Technologies Review and Strategy,” contains recommendations for advancement of microwave technologies to enable or to reduce the cost and risk of candidate high-value microwave measurements for Earth Observation from space. This NASA Engineering Network Webinar will provide a brief overview of the ESTO microwave strategy and its application to ESAS 2017. This will be followed by several examples of current technology developments for active and passive microwave instruments. This presentation will be given in three sections by David Kunkee (The Aerospace Corp.), Jeff Piepmeier (Goddard Space Flight Center), and Greg Sadowy (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)