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Systems Engineering & Model Based Systems Engineering Stakeholder State of the Discipline
Presenter Jessica Knizhnik
Published November 2020
Recorded June 2020
Duration 01:02:54
Tags None
Abstract: Join us as we discuss the results of a “comprehensive” study, conducted by the Systems Engineering TDT, in a special webinar. Find out where the SE discipline, in the aerospace industry, has opportunity for improvement and how cultural issues remain the number one challenge to MBSE implementation. We’ll also be discussing opportunities where NASA and its stakeholders can move forward together in SE innovation. Anyone interested in SE and its future, from systems engineers, MBSE practitioners, managers, and NASA partners are invited to attend. A full detailed report of study results that goes beyond the overview’s executive conclusions is also available. Both can be found at https://www.nasa.gov/nesc/articles/se-mbse-state-of-the-discipline Please join us in this informative discussion.
Using MBSE on a Working Project
Presenter Kerry McGuire
Published November 2020
Recorded August 2020
Duration 01:00:47
Tags None
Abstract: Our future missions are changing the way in which we will practice medicine. To ensure these challenges are addressed the Human Research Program (HRP) is dedicated to discovering the best methods and technologies to support safe, productive human space travel. Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, one of the five HRP elements, focuses on advancing medical system design and risk-informed decision making for exploration beyond low Earth orbit, to promote human health and performance in space. They are conducting research on how to best design and build a medical system, a sub-system to the Crew Health and Performance (CHP) system, for exploration missions. Their research involves the practical application of System Engineering (SE) best practices to generate products typically associated with Phase A activities as defined in NPR 7123.1B, NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements. Historically, CHP systems tend to be designed and integrated into an already designed vehicle, which severely constrains the functionality of CHP system. ExMC seeks to better integrate the medical system within the CHP system into overall mission and vehicle design. This talk will discuss the what, why and how the ExMC SE team is creating a foundation for a Level of Care IV and V medical systems using a systems engineering approach with Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tools.
MBSE to MIAMI to Implementation, an Overview
Presenter Jessica Knizhnik
Published November 2020
Recorded October 2020
Duration 01:06:03
Tags None
Abstract: How can NASA successfully deploy Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) to provide value added to its workforce? What must be done now and what should NASA consider for the future? This webcast will propose answers to these questions. The agency’s MBSE Infusion And Modernization Initiative (MIAMI), including its pathfinders, dozen active project partnerships, and initial Community of Practice, ran for five years. During this webcast MIAMI Leadership will use its lessons learned and successes to propose a workforce centered approach for advancing the agency’s system modeling capability.
An Innovative Jump Start for MBSE Tooling, NTL Results
Presenter Samantha Infeld
Published November 2020
Recorded August 2020
Duration 53:40
Tags None
Abstract: NASA’s Center of excellence for Collaborative Innovation (CoECI) uses open innovation, or “crowdsourcing”, to access the global public to find ideas, concepts, designs, or solutions that meet a previously unmet need possibly resulting in significant advances in performance. CoECI runs the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL); NTL is the public brand which conducts the challenges. A NTL challenge was sponsored by NASA Engineering and Safety Center Systems Engineering Technical Fellow as part of a program for NASA’s adoption of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). It was a trial to see if there would be as much participation or quality submissions with this more specialized topic and skill. The challenge sought space architecture representations and decompositions to create a library of modeled parts in a system modeling language (SysML). Solutions came from individuals and teams, students and professional consultants from the United States and Europe. Through this challenge, we learned a few lessons about how to engage with the public and what characteristics of a problem result in good crowdsourcing results. In this webcast, we’ll explore the proposed direct use of entries, with examples from their models, as well as discuss the benefits of running the NTL challenge.
Lidar for NASA Applications
Presenter Dr. Tso Yee Fan
Published October 2020
Recorded July 2020
Duration 54:20
Tags None
Lidar (light detection and ranging) is a sensing modality that has applications across NASA, such as global terrain mapping, global wind sounding, trace gas mapping, and precision landing. These lidar systems rely on laser transmitters to generate light, and photodetectors to receive the return signal. An example of a recent success, noted in the popular press, is ICESAT-2, which is an instrument used to map Earth’s ice sheets in the polar regions by transmitting short pulses, on the order of a few ns, and measuring the range to the surface by the round-trip time-of-flight of the return photons. The strengths of lidars compared with other sensing modalities are generally high vertical resolution, day and night measurements (as compared with passive optical remote sensing), precision, and specificity (for sensing molecular species). However, lidar systems, particularly for the Earth science applications, have been viewed as risky, immature, and limited – this view primarily driven by the state of laser technology for space missions. This webinar will present an overview of lidars and their NASA applications and then focus on a specific example, global, high-resolution, water-vapor concentration measurements, which has been of interest for over three decades. The main stumbling block for space-based water vapor lidar has been the laser transmitter technology; new developments are bringing hope that this stumbling block can be removed.
How to Get Started Using MBSE on a Project: The Basics of What, How and Who
Presenter Trevor Grondin
Published August 2020
Recorded June 2020
Duration 57:49
Tags None
Model-based Systems Engineering is seeing a lot of attention lately. Many projects at NASA have started using MBSE on some portion of their SE work. The long list of proposed benefits for MBSE is impressive, but can MBSE be used throughout a project life-cycle? Should MBSE be an "all-or-nothing" decision when doing project planning? Answering these questions can be intimidating for individuals who are new to MBSE, or those that have only seen successes in small areas of the SE function, but are not able to visualize how to use MBSE across a whole project. This talk helps to define the process of starting Systems Engineering on any project, and how MBSE ties in to it. Through the lens of "modeling with a purpose", Trevor Grondin walks through how to examine the Systems Engineering role for a given project, and how to assess using MBSE to add value to the work being done. From sizing the scope of the work, assessing uses of MBSE, and identifying project constraints, to developing a modeling plan that support the Systems Engineering approach, this talk will help arm modelers and LSEs alike with the framework they need to start using MBSE on a project.
Recurring Causes of Human Spaceflight Mishaps during Flight Tests and Early Operations
Presenter Dr. Tim Barth
Published August 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 01:48:51
Tags None
**Restricted to NASA CS/Contractor** Dr. Tim Barth, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) systems engineer, and Steve Lilley, NASA Safety Center senior safety engineer, will present the findings and recommendations from a technical study recently published by the NESC. An analysis of recurring causes underlying human spaceflight mishaps that occurred during flight tests and early operations was performed. Eight mishaps from the Apollo, Soyuz, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and Constellation Programs (i.e., the Ares-1X test flight) and early commercial suborbital operations were included in the study. Detailed event analyses were performed for the historical mishaps and aggregate data analyses conducted to identify recurring issues. The nine most frequent issues were inadequate technical controls or risk management practices, incomplete procedures, system design and development issues, inadequate inspection or secondary verification requirements, failures of organizations to learn from previous incidents, inadequate schedule controls, inadequate task analyses or design processes, flaws in the design of organizations, and issues with organizational safety cultures. The study’s goal was to use selected flight test/early operations mishap investigations to identify recurring factor patterns and provide results to current human spaceflight programs to inform and stimulate their mishap risk management efforts. Study results can provide current human spaceflight programs with data and examples to seed discussions and questions such as: • What else can be done within my area of responsibility to ensure crew safety? • What are we doing now that needs to be improved? • What could be stopped and replaced with a better approach? • What is working in other subsystems than can be extended to my subsystem?
Robust Stability: From Disk Margins to Neural Network Analysis
Presenter Dr. Peter Seiler
Published August 2020
Recorded June 2020
Duration 01:00:28
Tags None
Recorded June 24, 2020 This talk will provide a tutorial introduction to disk margins. These are robust stability measures that account for simultaneous gain and phase perturbations in a feedback system. This provides a generalization of classical (gain-only and phase-only) stability margins. The talk will motivate the use of disk margins and provide several examples including applications to multiple-input, multiple-output control systems. The talk will conclude with some recent extensions of this basic robustness analysis framework. It will be shown that typical robust control methods can be used to assess stability and robustness of feedback loops that use neural networks.
Automation Myths and the Virtues of Human-Machine Teaming
Presenter Dr. Robert Hoffman
Published July 2020
Recorded August 2018
Duration 41:15
Tags None
A number of widely-held beliefs underlie much of the popular discussion about automation, and also many of the government funding programs aimed at developing advanced technology. These include myths about autonomy, function allocation, compensation for human limitations, and automation as a substitution for people. These myths are not only misleading, but can be costly because they engender a host of serious misconceptions for policy makers thinking and for engineers. In this presentation we will review these myths and then counter them with the alternative view of human-machine teaming. This focuses design on teamwork, rather than taskwork. Specifically it focuses on interdependent activity, rather than independent work. It focuses on lifetime resilience rather than short-term procurement costs. Successful human-machine teamwork requires more than an engineering solution to the machine capabilities. It also requires a holistic view that takes into account the requirements of the entire human-machine work system in its application context.
Development of High Temperature Smart Sensor Systems
Presenter Dr. Gary W. Hunter
Published July 2020
Recorded October 2018
Duration 57:05
Tags None
Dr. Gary W. Hunter, NASA Glenn Research Center will present the Sensors and Instrumentation Webcast, “Development of High Temperature Smart Sensor Systems,” on Tuesday, October 16 at 2 pm Eastern. Sensors and sensor systems are central to providing improved system operations and situational awareness for a range of aerospace applications. A Smart Sensor System as described here implies at a minimum the use of sensors combined with electronic processing capabilities. A more expansive view of a Smart Sensor System is a complete self-contained sensor system that includes the capabilities for data logging and processing, self-contained power, and an ability to transmit or display informative data to an outside user. One aerospace challenge for the Smart Sensor System approach is application in extreme environments where both the core sensor technology and supporting hardware approach their operational limits. This presentation describes efforts to develop Smart Sensor Systems to enable Intelligent Systems, with an emphasis on high temperature sensors and electronics with the potential for wireless capabilities. Recent work has notably expanded high temperature electronics capabilities and produced the world’s first microcircuits of moderate complexity that have the potential for sustained operation at 500˚C. These circuits are at a level to enable a wide range of on-board data processing, including signal amplification, local processing, and wireless transmission of data. An overview will be given of development of sensors and electronics for a Venus lander, the Long-Lived In-Situ Solar System Explorer, with targeted operational lifetime of at least 60 days on the Venus surface. In summary, it is suggested that small, smart sensor system technologies are an enabling first step towards more intelligent vehicle systems and expanded capabilities across a range of aerospace and planetary applications.
History of Thermal at Goddard
Presenter Ed Powers
Published July 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 01:03:46
Tags None
Released: JWST OTIS Cryogenic Vacuum Test, Part 2: Thermal Analysis
Presenter Kan Yang
Published July 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 01:19:25
Tags None
In Part II, we will provide an overview of the OTIS CV test thermal model development. A description of some of the driving limits and constraints will be provided, as well as how these influenced our test planning and eventual execution. One significant aspect of our pre-test planning is the method by which we optimized the OTIS CV test cooldown and warmup profiles using the thermal model by incorporating a feedback loop for driving helium shroud temperature. We will spend some time introducing the logic for this feedback loop, which traded test time versus model safety to determine the most efficient way to cool and warm the payload. Finally, we will take a look at how our pre-test predictions compared with our actual performance in the OTIS CV test.
Aerogel-Based Thermal Insulation Systems for Cryogenic-vacuum Applications
Presenter James Fesmire
Published June 2020
Recorded June 2018
Duration 01:03:34
Tags None
Many different aerogel-based materials are now being used in thermal insulation systems for cryogenic applications. These materials include flexible composite blankets, bulk-fill particles, and polymer composites in both evacuated and non-evacuated environments. In ambient environments, aerogels provide superior thermal performance compared to conventional polymeric foam and cellular glass insulations while offering unique advantages in avoiding problems with weathering, moisture, and mechanical damage. Aerogels are also used in layered insulation systems providing combined structural-thermal capability for cryogenic applications in either vacuum-jacketed or externally-applied insulation designs. Test data (effective thermal conductivity) include a wide range of both commercial and experimental aerogel materials. Testing was performed using laboratory cryostats and standard methods including full range vacuum (from ambient pressure to high vacuum) and boundary temperatures 293 K and 78 K. Examples of aerogel-based insulation systems are given for both evacuated and non-evacuated applications. Technical resources for further data and study are also provided. Briefly addressed are the following topics on aerogel insulation systems: • Production & processing methods • Types of aerogels/composites • Properties & phenomena • Thermal testing • Thermal data • Applications & problem-solving
The Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment, Part 1
Presenter Dr. Mohammad Kassemi
Published June 2020
Recorded July 2018
Duration 01:20:44
Tags None
The Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments are a series of small scale tank pressurization and pressure control experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that use a transparent volatile simulant fluid in a transparent sealed tank to delineate various fundamental fluid flow, heat and mass transport, and phase change phenomena that control storage tank pressurization and pressure control in microgravity. The hardware for ZBOT-1 flew to ISS on the OA-7 flight in April 2017. Operations began in September 2017 and were completed by December 2017, encompassing more than 100 tests. Hand-in-Hand with the experiment a state-of-the-art two-phase CFD model of the storage tank pressurization & pressure control is also developed and validated against the experimental results.
Human Factors Applications of Biomechanical Modeling
Presenter Dr. Beth Lewandowski
Published June 2020
Recorded June 2019
Duration 38:55
Tags None
Recorded June 18, 2019 Biomechanical data collection and modeling has applications to the field of human factors. Specifically, motion data can be used to determine the operational volume necessary for performing a task. The operational volume assessment can be performed in order to determine how much volume is needed to perform the task or if task performance can be contained and adequately performed within an allocated volume. Motion and external force data, along with computational modeling techniques, can be used to estimate the internal loading produced during performance of a task. Internal loading estimates can be used to determine if an adequate stimulus is generated for maintenance of musculoskeletal health and also for comparison to injury thresholds to determine injury risk during task performance.
Futuristic Habitat Concepts to Expand Human Capability in Space
Presenter Dr. Robert Howard
Published June 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 59:34
Tags None
Since the dawn of human space flight there have been visions for human space flight programs that send humans to destinations beyond Earth. NASA is currently committed to the lunar surface, Mars surface, and deep space transport. Unfortunately, instabilities in US space policy have caused NASA to change focus repeatedly between these architectures since the 1970s. Further, it can be shown that developing lunar, Martian, and transit habitats in series will require inordinately long periods of time, resulting in exorbitant program expenses. A mitigation to these challenges could be to develop a Common Habitat design for both transit and surface operations. A Common Habitat derived from the Space Launch System core stage’s liquid oxygen tank and manufactured on the same production line as the SLS can be designed to provide functionality required for both microgravity transit and surface operations. Part one of this webcast will describe design considerations and options in addressing open challenges and unknowns as they pertain to horizontal or vertical interior orientation, integration with lunar or Martian landers, docking and resupply logistics, and variations in crew size. Part two of this webcast introduces the idea of a transit spacecraft whose primary crew mission is found within the transit as opposed to the destination. This webcast introduces the concept of a Deep Space Science Vessel (DSSV), a large, multi-purpose, multi-disciplinary science spacecraft intended for human spaceflight operations in the inner solar system. This webcast will define the DSSV onboard crew functions and describe target performance levels for each function. It will then discuss the habitable volume of the spacecraft, providing high level workstation descriptions and preliminary layout options for portions of the spacecraft. Attached and typical visiting vehicles will be described, including their functions, heritage, and examples of mission-specific configurations. Mission concepts will be described for key missions possible within the vehicle’s operating range. Sample crew composition for the DSSV will be discussed. Finally, future work will be described, providing context for human development of the inner solar system.
STS/ISS On-Orbit Flight Control: A Historical Perspective or Some Funny Things Happened While Assembling the Space Station
Presenter Robert Hall
Published June 2020
Recorded February 2020
Duration 01:03:09
Tags None
This aired on February 26th, 2020 The assembly of the International Space Station was a very complex flight control and integration challenge. This presentation discusses some of those challenges, along with some things that happened along the way that weren't expected.
Practical Application of Human Factors in Flight Hardware Design
Presenter Sean Schimelpfening
Published March 2020
Recorded January 2020
Duration 51:19
Tags None
Abstract: The following presentation and corresponding hardware demonstration were developed as training for U.S. ISS Payload Developers (PDs), to instruct them how to design hardware to meet ISS Payload Human Factors requirements and guidelines, and to brief them about the services the ISS Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) offers to them. Applying Human Factors requirements and guidelines to flight hardware design is not as simple as one would think. This presentation and hands-on demonstration have proven valuable to get hardware developers to think about designing crew interfaces that are safe and easy to operate.
Demonstrating a Galactic Positioning System Using X-ray Emitting Millisecond Pulsars
Presenter Jason Mitchell
Published March 2020
Recorded October 2019
Duration 01:01:05
Tags None
Abstract: Accurate reference clocks are critical to navigation. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), principally the Global Positioning System (GPS), provide the precise space-based clocks that have revolutionized navigation and timekeeping terrestrially and within the Interoperable Space Service Volume (SSV), i.e., near Earth including above the GNSS constellations. Unfortunately, for spacecraft navigation beyond Earth into deep space, GNSS is not available. While GNSS constellations are unavailable to spacecraft in deep space, observing X-ray emissions from rapidly spinning neutron stars, called millisecond pulsars (MSPs), has been shown to fill that gap; a process often referred to as X-ray Navigation (XNAV). MSPs are distributed throughout our galaxy and many pulsate at intervals so regular that they rival terrestrial atomic clocks on long time scales, similar to those clocks contained in GNSS satellites. By carefully timing these pulsations, an XNAV equipped spacecraft can use these celestial lighthouses to autonomously determine its absolute position, with uniform accuracy, anywhere within our Solar System and even beyond. This is in contrast to conventional position determination using Earth-based tracking, in which a communication link back to Earth is required and accuracy degrades as the distance from Earth grows. In this webcast, results will be presented of the Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology (SEXTANT) demonstration, which successfully executed the first on-orbit use of XNAV to perform autonomous onboard and real-time space navigation. SEXTANT was a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded technology enhancement to the Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission, which is currently operating on the International Space Station (ISS).
Oculometric Assessment of Mild Neural Impairment
Presenter Dr. Leland Stone
Published March 2020
Recorded January 2020
Duration 48:56
Tags None
Abstract: For over 100 years, neurologists have used eye movements to identify neural impairment, disease, or injury. Prior to the age of modern imaging, qualitative assessment of eye movements was a critical, routine component of diagnosis and remains today a routine law-enforcement tool for detecting impaired driving due to drugs or alcohol. We will describe the application of a simple 5-minute oculomotor tracking task coupled with a broad range of quantitative analyses of high-resolution oculomotor measurements for the sensitive detection of sub-clinical neural impairment and for the potential differentiation of various causes. Specifically, we will show that there are distinct patterns of impairment across our set of oculometric parameters observed with brain trauma, sleep and circadian disruption, and alcohol consumption. Such differences could form the basis of a self-administered medical monitoring or diagnostic support tool.