Passive Thermal

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Passive thermal control and thermal protection aims to maintain vehicle and component temperatures within acceptable limits using passive means. Thermal control is a broad discipline including internal and external systems, component and integrated thermal model development and analysis and correlation, attitude timeline analysis, and purge, vent, and drain analysis for vehicle cavities and compartments, thermal-vacuum testing. Thermal protection focuses on reusable high temperature thermal protection insulations such as tiles and high temperature blankets, the thermal aspects of hot structure, seals and barriers, ablative materials, thermo-mechanical analysis for induced stress, and arc jet and radiant heat testing.

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SPICE Thermal Vector Input for Numerical Heating Calculations
JWST OTIS Cryogenic Vacuum Test, Part 4: Lessons Learned
Presenter Kan Yang
Published March 2021
Recorded August 2020
Duration 51:14
Tags None
Welcome to the fourth lecture of the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element and Integrated Science Instrument Model Cryogenic Vacuum Test lecture series. In this lecture, we will talk about the lessons learned from the planning and execution of the OTIS CV test.
JWST OTIS Cryogenic Vacuum Test, Part 3: Preparation for Off-Nominal Events
Presenter Kan Yang
Published March 2021
Recorded August 2020
Duration 52:49
Tags None
Welcome to the third lecture of the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element and Integrated Science Instrument Model Cryogenic Vacuum Test lecture series. In this lecture, we will talk about preparation for off-nominal events. Before we begin, I’d like to acknowledge three co-contributors that were instrumental in the development of the content for this section: Stuart Glazer, who was the thermal lead for the OTIS CV test; Lee Feinberg, who is the Optical Telescope Element manager for the James Webb Space Telescope and played an integral role in the overall success of the OTIS test campaign; and Brian Comber, who was the lead thermal analyst for the ISIM CV tests, as well as the sole developer of the Fusion test monitoring software and the uncontrolled helium shroud warmup analysis methodology that will be discussed in this section
Introduction to Orbital Mechanics and Spacecraft Attitudes for Thermal Engineers, 05: Spacecraft Attitudes
Introduction to Orbital Mechanics and Spacecraft Attitudes for Thermal Engineers, 04: Advanced Orbit Concepts
Introduction to Orbital Mechanics and Spacecraft Attitudes for Thermal Engineers, 03: Perturbed Orbits
Introduction to Orbital Mechanics and Spacecraft Attitudes for Thermal Engineers, 02: The Two Body Problem
Introduction to Orbital Mechanics and Spacecraft Attitudes for Thermal Engineers, 01: Introduction
History of Thermal at Goddard
Presenter Ed Powers
Published July 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 01:03:46
Tags None
JWST OTIS Cryogenic Vacuum Test, Part 2: Thermal Analysis
Presenter Kan Yang
Published July 2020
Recorded May 2020
Duration 01:19:25
Tags None
In Part II, we will provide an overview of the OTIS CV test thermal model development. A description of some of the driving limits and constraints will be provided, as well as how these influenced our test planning and eventual execution. One significant aspect of our pre-test planning is the method by which we optimized the OTIS CV test cooldown and warmup profiles using the thermal model by incorporating a feedback loop for driving helium shroud temperature. We will spend some time introducing the logic for this feedback loop, which traded test time versus model safety to determine the most efficient way to cool and warm the payload. Finally, we will take a look at how our pre-test predictions compared with our actual performance in the OTIS CV test.
JWST OTIS Cryogenic Vacuum Test, Part 1: Thermal Architecture
Presenter Kan Yang
Published October 2019
Recorded September 2019
Duration 30:59
Tags None
This series discusses the cryogenic vacuum testing of the James Webb Space Telescope’s Optical Telescope Element and Integrated Science Instrument Module, or OTIS. This test required multiple years of planning and was executed from July-October of 2017 at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. There are four parts to this series: Part I will introduce the major components of James Webb and specifically the thermal architecture of the OTIS cryogenic vacuum or CV test. Part II will encompass the extensive thermal analysis performed to prepare for the test. Part III will talk about the preparations for off-nominal events: what analysis was done, and how steps were taken pre-test to anticipate unexpected circumstances and mitigate their impacts to hardware and test timeline. Part IV is a recap of the lessons learned from the thermal test conductor perspective for both the payload team and the ground support equipment or GSE team.
Numerical Method to Calculate Spacecraft Environmental Heating From Celestial Bodies
Presenter Allan Holtzman
Published July 2019
Recorded June 2019
Duration 10:15
Tags None
This talk is about a numerical method to calculate the environmental heating of a spacecraft near a celestial body. This method was applied on MESSENGER, the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury, and helped to protect the spacecraft throughout its life and increase the amount of science data returned for the mission. The technique would be useful also for lunar missions, and for spacecraft that come in close proximity to comets and asteroids, and other scenarios besides those.
Building Your First SINDA Model
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published April 2019
Recorded April 2019
Duration 34:43
Tags None
In this lesson, we’ll discuss thermal modeling using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer, or SINDA analysis software. This tool has existed in one form or another for more than 50 years and has undergone major improvements over time. Presently, different versions of SINDA are offered by a number of vendors. For this lesson, we are using a SINDA format offered by Cullimore and Ring Technologies, Incorporated. With minor modification, the models developed during this lesson can be adapted to other versions of SINDA. The use of this particular format during this lesson should not be construed as an endorsement of any product.
Short Course on Lithium-ion Batteries: Fundamental Concepts, Battery Safety, and Modeling Techniques
Presenter William Walker
Published February 2019
Recorded November 2018
Duration 02:18:28
Tags None
Originally aired December 4, 2018. Disciplines: Passive Thermal, Electrical Power This short course provides participants with an in-depth discussion on three aspects of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. First an understanding of Li-ion battery fundamentals is provided through a brief discussion centered on the aerospace industry’s choice to use Li-ion batteries, general performance characteristics, electrochemical reaction basics, and the heat generated during nominal operation. Secondly, Li-ion battery safety is addressed with respect to thermal runaway and battery safety. Lastly, this course will lead the participants through the basic construction process of a thermal model of a Li-ion battery assembly that is capable of simulating nominal heating and thermal runaway heating. The overall goal of the course is to provide participants with an in-depth understanding of both the fundamental and thermal aspects of Li-ion batteries.
Wire and Wire Bundle Thermal Analysis
Thermal Hardware for Thermal Analysts
Presenter David Steinfeld
Published August 2017
Recorded July 2017
Duration 01:11:03
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Lithium Ion Battery Thermal Propagation Modeling: Considerations and Lessons Learned
Presenter Dr. Bruce Drolen
Published April 2017
Recorded March 2017
Duration 18:38
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Two Phase Flows and Heat Transfer, Part 2
Presenter Dr. Henry Nahra
Published December 2016
Recorded September 2016
Duration 01:26:45
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Two Phase Flows and Heat Transfer, Part 1
Presenter Dr. Henry Nahra
Published December 2016
Recorded September 2016
Duration 01:23:02
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Common Thermal Modeling Mistakes, Part 2
Presenter Ruth Amundsen
Published October 2016
Recorded September 2016
Duration 58:19
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal This presentation was recorded at the Thermal & Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) on August 3rd, 2016. This course will cover the some of the common mistakes made in thermal modeling, and how to avoid them. Thermal Desktop will be used as a platform to demonstrate many of the common errors by both new analysts as well as experienced engineers in building a thermal model. Other non-software-associated errors will also be covered. Topics covered will include common errors in assumptions, materials, configurations, radiation, orbital analysis, and common faults in problem setup, analysis case runs and record-keeping. The course should help you as an engineer to watch for these common errors in the future, and help you avoid them.
Common Thermal Modeling Mistakes, Part 1
Presenter Ruth Amundsen
Published October 2016
Recorded September 2016
Duration 01:15:04
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal This presentation was recorded at the Thermal & Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) on August 3rd, 2016. This course will cover the some of the common mistakes made in thermal modeling, and how to avoid them. Thermal Desktop will be used as a platform to demonstrate many of the common errors by both new analysts as well as experienced engineers in building a thermal model. Other non-software-associated errors will also be covered. Topics covered will include common errors in assumptions, materials, configurations, radiation, orbital analysis, and common faults in problem setup, analysis case runs and record-keeping. The course should help you as an engineer to watch for these common errors in the future, and help you avoid them.
Thermal Blankets
Presenter Carol Mosier
Published June 2016
Recorded April 2016
Duration 45:59
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Understanding Radiative Thermometry, Part 1
Presenter Tim Risch
Published February 2016
Recorded October 2015
Duration 29:38
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Understanding Radiative Thermometry, Part 2
Presenter Tim Risch
Published February 2016
Recorded October 2015
Duration 44:44
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Arc Jet Testing Overview
Presenter Walt Bruce
Published January 2016
Recorded October 2015
Duration 01:05:28
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Numerical Modeling of Cryogenic Fluid Management
Presenter Dr. Alok Majumdar
Published June 2015
Recorded April 2015
Duration 56:09
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal This lesson describes the basics of finite volume procedure in a fluid network and several applications of Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) using NASA’s Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP uses finite volume procedure to solve mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of fluid in conjunction with thermodynamic equation of state and energy conservation equation of solid. Four CFM applications considered in this lesson are: 1. Chilldown of a cryogenic transfer line, 2. No vent chill and fill of a cryogenic propellant tank, 3) Boil-off in a cryogenic propellant tank, 4) Self-pressurization of cryogenic propellant tank. Modeling of two phase flow, phase change and conjugate heat transfer are the highlights of these application problems.This lesson discusses recent progresses on numerical modeling of these applications and need for further research.
Determination of Thermal Model Error in Correlation
Presenter Ruth Amundsen
Published October 2014
Recorded June 2014
Duration 24:30
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Introduction to Numerical Methods in Heat Transfer, Part 2
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published July 2013
Recorded May 2013
Duration 19:03
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: Thermal Radiation Numerical Methods Heat Equation Heat Transfer Finite Difference Euler-Lagrange Equation Variational Formulation Finite Element
Introduction to Numerical Methods in Heat Transfer, Part 1
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published July 2013
Recorded May 2013
Duration 20:26
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: Thermal Radiation Numerical Methods Heat Equation Heat Transfer Finite Difference Euler-Lagrange Equation Variational Formulation Finite Element
Introduction to Numerical Methods in Heat Transfer, Part 4
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published July 2013
Recorded May 2013
Duration 24:07
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: Thermal Radiation Numerical Methods Heat Equation Heat Transfer Finite Difference Euler-Lagrange Equation Variational Formulation Finite Element
Introduction to Numerical Methods in Heat Transfer, Part 3
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published July 2013
Recorded May 2013
Duration 08:32
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: Thermal Radiation Numerical Methods Heat Equation Heat Transfer Finite Difference Euler-Lagrange Equation Variational Formulation Finite Element
Bottle Blow-Down Analysis
Presenter Richard Wear
Published March 2013
Recorded February 2013
Duration 26:12
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: thermodynamics vessel blow-down gas flow isentropic isothermal bottle
Rationale for Selected MIL-STD-1540E Thermal Test Requirements
Presenter John W Welch
Published December 2012
Recorded September 2012
Duration 37:34
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Thermal Vacuum Testing at JPL
Presenter Charles J Phillips
Published December 2012
Recorded September 2012
Duration 29:47
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal
Form Factors, Grey Bodies and Radiation Conductances, Part 2
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published October 2012
Recorded May 2012
Duration 23:39
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Steve Rickman is the Technical Fellow for Passive Thermal discipline. Keywords: Steve Rickman, Technical Fellow, Passive Thermal Thermal Radiation Stefan-Boltzmann Law Form Factor Grey Body Interchange Factor Radiation Conductance Radk Monte Carlo Nusselt Sphere Double Area Summation Gebhart’s Method
Form Factors, Grey Bodies and Radiation Conductances, Part 3
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published October 2012
Recorded May 2012
Duration 18:38
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Steve Rickman is the Technical Fellow for Passive Thermal discipline. Keywords: Steve Rickman, Technical Fellow, Passive Thermal Thermal Radiation Stefan-Boltzmann Law Form Factor Grey Body Interchange Factor Radiation Conductance Radk Monte Carlo Nusselt Sphere Double Area Summation Gebhart’s Method
Form Factors, Grey Bodies and Radiation Conductances, Part 4
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published October 2012
Recorded May 2012
Duration 06:39
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Steve Rickman is the Technical Fellow for Passive Thermal discipline. Keywords: Steve Rickman, Technical Fellow, Passive Thermal Thermal Radiation Stefan-Boltzmann Law Form Factor Grey Body Interchange Factor Radiation Conductance Radk Monte Carlo Nusselt Sphere Double Area Summation Gebhart’s Method
Introduction to On-Orbit Thermal Environments Part I
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published September 2011
Recorded October 2011
Duration 15:34
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: Thermal Radiation Orbit Solar Flux Albedo Planetary Flux OLR Beta Angle Charged Particle Heating Free Molecular Heating
Introduction to On-Orbit Thermal Environments Part IV
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published September 2011
Recorded October 2011
Duration 15:06
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: Thermal Radiation Orbit Solar Flux Albedo Planetary Flux OLR Beta Angle Charged Particle Heating Free Molecular Heating
Introduction to On-Orbit Thermal Environments Part II
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published September 2011
Recorded October 2011
Duration 24:31
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: Thermal Radiation Orbit Solar Flux Albedo Planetary Flux OLR Beta Angle Charged Particle Heating Free Molecular Heating
Introduction to On-Orbit Thermal Environments Part III
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published September 2011
Recorded October 2011
Duration 27:34
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Keywords: Thermal Radiation Orbit Solar Flux Albedo Planetary Flux OLR Beta Angle Charged Particle Heating Free Molecular Heating
1. Overview and Introduction to Passive Thermal Control and Thermal Protection
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published December 2010
Recorded November 2011
Duration 30:07
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Steve Rickman is the Technical Fellow for Passive Thermal discipline. In this overview he gives an introduction Passive Thermal Control and Thermal Protection. Keywords: Steve Rickman, Technical Fellow, Passive Thermal, Thermal Protection, Overview and Introduction to Passive Thermal Control and Thermal Protection, Discipline. Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Radiation Passive Thermal Control Thermal Protection Insulation Reusable Thermal Protection Ablative Thermal Protection Hot Structure
Form Factors, Grey Bodies and Radiation Conductances, Part 1
Presenter Steven L. Rickman
Published December 2010
Recorded May 2012
Duration 13:39
Tags None
Discipline: Passive Thermal Steve Rickman is the Technical Fellow for Passive Thermal discipline. Keywords: Steve Rickman, Technical Fellow, Passive Thermal Thermal Radiation Stefan-Boltzmann Law Form Factor Grey Body Interchange Factor Radiation Conductance Radk Monte Carlo Nusselt Sphere Double Area Summation Gebhart’s Method
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